Anti Phospholipid Antibody (APA) -IgG / IgM

Clinical definition of the Anti Phospholipid Antibody (APA) test
Antiphospholipid antibodies are autoantibodies associated with venous and arterial thrombosis; thrombocytopenia, and/or recurrent pregnancy loss. They prevent the blood to flow properly resulting in blood clots causing a health risk to both the mother and the baby. Some important types of phospholipid antibodies are: anticardiolipin; antinuclear and lupus antibodies.

Why is the Anti Phospholipid Antibody (APA) test done?
The antiphosolipid antibody test can check for elevated levels of all of the different types of antibodies. It can also be ordered to check on specific antibodies also. They play an important role in the body's ability to regulate blood clotting. It is used to determine the cause of recurrent miscarriage; evaluate or follow-up on a prolonged PTT (partial thromboplastin time) or as part of an evaluation for antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

What are the common signs/symptoms when the Anti Phospholipid Antibody (APA) test is done?

  • Recurrent unexplained venous or arterial blood clots
  • Recurrent unexplained thrombotic episodes
  • Pain and swelling due to the thrombotic episodes
  • Shortness of breath
  • Migraine headaches
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Stroke
  • Heart attack
  • Recurrent miscarriages, especially in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters
  • Stillbirth
  • Placental insufficiency
  • Implantation failure
  • Increased rates of IVF failure

Who should do the Anti Phospholipid Antibody (APA) test (Target population)?

  • Patients suffering from the above symptoms due to inappropriate and unexplained blood clot formation
  • Pregnant females having  recurrent unexplained miscarriages especially in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters or unexplained infertility

What should I do before the Anti Phospholipid Antibody (APA) test?

Specimen type

Specimen collection procedure

Preparatory instructions during specimen collection*

Serum (Blood Sample)

Venipuncture - Collection of blood from a vein, usually from the arm.

No Fasting Required.

No other special preparations required.

*Subjects suffering from any illness or on oral or injectable medications are advised to consult their physician prior to requesting any tests or procedures.

How do I interpret my Anti Phospholipid Antibody (APA) results?





0.0 to 10.0 GPL Units/ml **

0.0 to 10.0 MPL Units/ml **


‘*A Reference range is a set of values which helps the healthcare professional to interpret a medical test. It may vary with age, gender, and other factors. Reference ranges may also vary between labs, in value & units depending on instruments used and method of establishment of reference ranges’

Diseases/conditions related to the Anti Phospholipid Antibody (APA) test

  • Lupus
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome
  • Recurrent miscarriages
  • Thrombotic Episodes
  • Pre eclampsia
  • Oscillopsia
  • Thrombocytopenia

Other tests related to the Anti Phospholipid Antibody (APA) test

  • Cardiolipin Antibody: IgA; IgG; IgM
  • Partial Thromboplastin Time - PTT
  • Lupus anticoagulant panel
  • Russell viper venom time (RVVT)
  • Platelet neutralization procedure
  • Kaolin clotting time
  • Hexagonal phospholipid confirmatory test
  • Dilute prothrombin time
  • Anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies
  • Anti-phosphatidylserine antibodies
  • Anti-prothrombin antibodies

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Phospholipid Antibody (APA)- IgM