Anti Insulin Bodies

Clinical definition of the Anti Insulin Bodies test
Insulin is a hormone secreted by the cells of the pancreas. It regulates the carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body.The body requires daily insulin so that glucose can enter cells and be used for energy production. Without sufficient insulin, cells starve and it would result in high blood sugar.
Auto- antibodies may develop in the body against the pancreatic cells, that produce it or against insulin itself. These autoantibodies reflect the destruction of the cells, the loss of the cell function and hence lack of insulin production, thus resulting in Type 1 diabetes. In contrast, type 2 diabetes primarily results from insulin resistance and does not involve autoimmune processes.

Why is the Anti Insulin Bodies test done?
The anti-insulin antibody test checks for the presence of antibodies (indicating an immune response) against insulin. This test may be done:-

  • To check for the presence of antibodies against insulin i.e. when the body mistakes the pancreas as foreign and starts responding by attacking and destroying the insulin-producing beta islet cells of the pancreas
  • For early diagnosis and assessment of risk for developing type 1 diabetes mellitus
  • To distinguish between type 1, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes
  • For risk prediction in immediate family members for type 1 diabetes
  • To monitor prognosis of the clinical progression of type 1 diabetes
  • To analyze allergic response to insulin
  • To check if insulin no longer seems to control the diabetes
  • To confirm insulin resistance
  • When there is a difficulty in controlling their glucose levels with the standard treatment
  • To determine if hypoglycemia is caused by insulin overuse

What are the common signs/symptoms when the Anti Insulin Bodies test is done?

  • Frequent urination
  • Thirst
  • Weight loss
  • Poor wound healing
  • Difficulty in controlling glucose levels with the standard treatment

Who should do the Anti Insulin Bodies test (Target population)?
Person’s newly diagnosed with diabetes may need to do this test. It may also be done for persons who have been diagnosed for Type 2 but have great difficulty in controlling their glucose levels with the standard treatment.

What should I do before the Anti Insulin Bodies test?

Specimen type

Specimen collection procedure

Preparatory instructions during specimen collection*

Serum (Blood Sample)

Venipuncture - Collection of blood from a vein, usually from the arm.

Fasting Required.

Fasting samples have to be collected after a minimum 8-hour overnight fasting status.

Clear fluids like water is allowed during this period. Refrain from consumption of early morning beverages like tea, coffee and milk until specimen collection is completed.

In case of diabetics on oral or injectable hypoglycemic agents, consult your physician about continuing with these medications prior to specimen collection.

*Subjects suffering from any illness or on oral or injectable medications are advised to consult their physician prior to requesting any tests or procedures.

How do I interpret my Anti Insulin Bodies test results?

Reference

Interval

< 12 U/ml

Negative

12 - 18 U/ml

Equivocal

> 18 U/ml

Positive

Inference: Normally, there are no antibodies against insulin in the blood. However if the body does have IgG and IgM antibodies against insulin, the body will treat the insulin as foreign. This may make insulin less effective, or not effective at all. If the test shows high levels of IgE antibody against insulin, then the body has developed an allergic response to the medication.
‘*A Reference range is a set of values which helps the healthcare professional to interpret a medical test. It may vary with age, gender, and other factors. Reference ranges may also vary between labs, in value & units depending on instruments used and method of establishment of reference ranges’

Diseases/conditions related to the Anti Insulin Bodies test

  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Gestational diabetes
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hyperglycemia

Other tests related to the Anti Insulin Bodies test

  • C-Peptide
  • Glucose
  • Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT)
  • Glucose
  • Insulin

Synonyms : Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibodies (GADA), Insulin Autoantibodies (IAA)
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