Cardiolipin Antibodies (ACA) (IgA / I gG / IgM)

Clinical definition of the Cardiolipin Antibodies test
Cardiolipin antibodies are associated with thrombocytopenia, recurrent miscarriages, and with premature labor and preeclampsia. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are acquired autoantibodies produced against cardiolipins. They are produced by the immune system against their own cells, tissues, and/or organs and attack them causing inflammation & damage. They increase the patient's risk of developing recurrent inappropriate blood clots in the blood vessels. Cardiolipin antibodies are also associated with thrombocytopenia, recurrent miscarriages, and with premature labor and preeclampsia. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies can be classified as IgA; IgG; IgM

Why is the Cardiolipin Antibodies test done?
It is done to detect the presence of cardiolipin antibody IgA/ IgG/ IgM which play an important role in the body's ability to regulate blood clotting. It helps to investigate the formation of inappropriate blood clot which may cause recurrent miscarriages, thrombocytopenia, unexplained thrombotic episode, a prolonged PTT (activated partial thromboplastin time), hemolytic anemia, thrombotic microangiopathy, SLE or other autoimmune disorders.

What are the common signs/symptoms when the Cardiolipin Antibodies test is done?

  • Recurrent Unexplained thrombotic episodes
  • Pain and swelling due to the thrombotic episodes in the extremities
  • Shortness of breath
  • Headaches
  • Recurrent miscarriages, especially in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters

Who should do the Cardiolipin Antibodies test (Target population)?

  • Patients suffering from the above symptoms due to inappropriate and unexplained blood clot formation
  • Mothers having recurrent miscarriages

What should I do before the Cardiolipin Antibodies test?

Specimen type

Specimen collection procedure

Preparatory instructions during specimen collection*

Serum (Blood Sample)

Venipuncture - Collection of blood from a vein, usually from the arm.

No Fasting Required.

No other special preparations required.

*Subjects suffering from any illness or on oral or injectable medications are advised to consult their physician prior to requesting any tests or procedures.

How do I interpret my Cardiolipin Antibodies test results?

Interval

Interpretation*

APL

GPL

MPL

0-11 APL

0-14 GPL

0-12 MPL

Negative

12-19 APL

15-19 GPL

13-19 MPL

Indeterminate

20-80 APL

20-80 GPL

20-80 MPL

Low to Medium positive

81 APL or above

81 APL or above

81 MPL or above

High Positive

APL = IgA phospholipid units; GPL = IgG phospholipid units; MPL = IgM phospholipid units

Inference: Most patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) have medium or high levels of anticardiolipin IgG and/or IgM antibodies. All positive results should be retested on two or more occasions and at least 12 weeks apart to confirm persistence.
A negative result means only that class tested IgA/ IgG/ IgM is not present at this time. Could emerge temporarily due to an infection, drug, or as without any symptoms as the person ages. The low to moderate concentrations must be examined futher in connection with a patient’s other symptoms & clinical condition. Moderate to high levels indicate the continued presence of the specific antibody.
‘*A Reference range is a set of values which helps the healthcare professional to interpret a medical test. It may vary with age, gender, and other factors. Reference ranges may also vary between labs, in value & units depending on instruments used and method of establishment of reference ranges’

Diseases/conditions related to the Cardiolipin Antibodies test

  • Thrombotic Episodes
  • Thrombotic microangiopathy
  • Thrombocytopenia PTT (activated partial thromboplastin time)
  •  Preeclampsia
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • Syphilis
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome
  • Livedoid vasculitis
  • Vertebrobasilar insufficiency
  • Bencet’s syndrome
  • Idiopathic spontaneous abortion and recurrent miscarriages
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Some cancers

Other tests related to the Cardiolipin Antibodies test

  • Antiphospholipid Antibodies
  • Anti-beta2 glycoprotein I
  • Anti-phosphatidylserine
  • Autoantibodies
  • Lupus Anticoagulant

Synonyms : Anticardiolipin Antibodies (ACLA),
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Cardiolipin Antibodies (IgM)

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