Hemoglobin (Hb) Electrophoresis

Clinical definition of the hemoglobin electrophoresis test
Hemoglobin electrophoresis is a blood test that detects different types of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is a substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen. It comes in many normal and abnormal forms. Hemoglobin electrophoresis uses the principle of gel electrophoresis to separate out various types of hemoglobin. The most common type of hemoglobin’s are:

  • Hemoglobin F: The normal type found in foetuses and newborns. It's replaced by hemoglobin A soon after birth
  • Hemoglobin A: The normal type most commonly found in healthy kids and adults
  • Hemoglobin S, C, D, and E: are the abnormal hemoglobin types

Production of too much of an abnormal type of hemoglobin leads to blood disorders. Hemoglobin electrophoresis test detects the defeciency of normal hemoglobin, abnormal levels of Hemoglobin S (Hbs) associated with sickle cell anemia and abnormal hemoglobin levels of hemoglobin C associated with hemolytic anemia.

Why is the hemoglobin electrophoresis test done?
Hemoglobin electrophoresis is a test that measures the different types of the oxygen-carrying protein (hemoglobin) in the blood. This test is carried out to diagnose diseases involving abnormal hemoglobin production such as sickle cell diseases and thalassemia.

What are the common signs/symptoms when the hemoglobin electrophoresis test is done?

  • Slowed growth and delayed puberty.
  • Bone problems
  • Poor appetite
  • Enlarged liver
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Dark urine
  • Jaundice (a yellowish color of the skin or whites of the eyes)
  • An enlarged Heart
  • Bone problems (especially bones in the face)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Headaches
  • Coldness in the hands and feet
  • Paler than normal skin or mucous membranes (the tissue that lines your nose, mouth, and other organs and body cavities)

What should I do before the hemoglobin electrophoresis test?

Specimen type

Specimen collection procedure

Preparatory instructions before the test *

Serum

(Blood Sample)

Venipuncture

(Collection of blood from a vein, usually from the arm)

No Fasting Required.

No other special preparations required

* Subjects suffering from any illness or on oral or injectable medications are advised to consult their physician prior to requesting any tests or procedures.

How do I interpret my hemoglobin electrophoresis test results?

Gender

Normal Hb Value

Male

13.5 to 17.5 gm/dL

Female

12 to 15.6 gm/dL

Children- Age

Day 1 - Day 2

14.0 - 22.0 g/dl

Day 3 - Day 6

15.0 - 21.0 g/dl

Day 7 - Day 13

13.5 - 21.5 g/dl

Day 14 - Day 29

12.5 - 20.5 g/dl

1month  - 1.5 months

11.5 - 16.5 g/dl

2months - 2.5 months

9.4 - 13.0 g/dl

3 mnts - 6 mnts months

11.1 - 14.1 g/dl

6.5 months - 1 Yr. 11 mnts

11.1 - 14.1 g/dl

2 Years - 6 Years

11.0 - 14.0 g/dl

6 Years 1 month - 12 Years

11.5 - 15.5 g/dl

Adolescent Male

13 - 16 g/dl

Adolescent Female

12 - 16 g/dl

Hemoglobin, free, urine

Absent

Hemoglobin, Plasma

10 – 40 mg/l

 

Gender

Hb A0

HbA2

HbC

HbD

HbS

HbE

HbF

Male

94.3-98.5%

00 to 3.7 %

0%

0%

0%

0%

0-2%

Female

94.3- 98.5 %

00 to 3.7 %

0%

0%

0%

0%

0-2%

Children

0 to 1month

17.7-54 %

00 to 1.3 %

0%

0%

0%

0%

46-81%

1 to 2 months

37.1-70.6 %

0.4 to 1.9 %

0%

0%

0%

0%

29-61%

2 to 3 months

41-84 %

1.0 to 3.0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

15-56%

3 to 4 months

68.2-88.6 %

2.0-2.8 %

0%

0%

0%

0%

9.4-29%

4 to 5 months

74.9- 95.6 %

2.1- 3.1 %

0%

0%

0%

0%

2.3-22%

5 to 8 months

83.5- 95.8 %

1.9 -3.5 %

0%

0%

0%

0%

2.3-13%

8 to 12 months

91.7- 96.7 %

2.0- 2.3 %

0%

0%

0%

0%

1.3-5.0%

Above one year

94.3 -98.5 %

00-3.7 %

0%

0%

0%

0%

0.0-2%

‘*A Reference range is a set of values which helps the healthcare professional to interpret a medical test. It may vary with age, gender, and other factors. Reference ranges may also vary between labs, in value & units depending on instruments used and method of establishment of reference ranges’.

Diseases/conditions related to the hemoglobin electrophoresis test

  • Hemoglobin C disease
  • Rare hemoglobinopathy
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Thalassemia

Other tests related to the hemoglobin electrophoresis test

  • Hemoglobin variant testing
  • DNA analysis

Synonyms : Thalassemia study, Sickle Cell Disease study
Book Related Tests
  • Haemoglobin (Hb)

Read About Related Tests
FB TWITTER