Microalbumin - Urine

Clinical definition of the Microalbumin - Urine test
Albumin is normally found in the blood and is then filtered by the kidneys. When kidneys work properly albumin is not present in the urine, but when the kidneys are damaged, small amounts of albumin leak into the urine. This condition is called microalbuminuria. A microalbumin test checks urine for the presence of albumin.

Why is the Microalbumin - Urine test done?
Determines the presence of the albumin in urine. A random, 24-hour urine or a timed collection may be used to diagnose Microalbuminuria. The kidneys normally filter it from the urine, so albuminuria can be an indicator of damage to the kidneys. It can also occur in patients with long-standing diabetes, especially Type 1 diabetes.
To compensate for variations in urine concentration it is more typical to compare the amount of albumin in the sample against its concentration of creatinine. This is termed the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) and microalbuminuria may be defined with both substances measured by mass.

What are the common signs/symptoms when the Microalbumin - Urine test is done?

  • Changes in Urination; Foamy urine
  • Swelling in the hands, ankles, calves and feet
  • Frequent urination
  • Fatigue
  • Skin Rash/Itching
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Dizziness and Trouble Concentrating
  • Shortness of breath
  • Leg/Flank Pain

Who should do the Microalbumin - Urine test (Target population)?
Persons showing the above signs & symptoms and may have the need to be screened for a possible kidney disorder or an early damage to the kidneys in those with diabetes. It may also be done annually after a diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension.

What should I do before the Microalbumin - Urine test?

Specimen type

Specimen collection procedure

Preparatory instructions before the test *

Urine

Mid-Stream Urine (not at the beginning and not at the end) should be collected. Care must be taken to clean the genitals well before collection.

Follow these steps to get the sample

Initial or the first few drops of the urine should be discarded in the toilet.

Mid-stream urine sample should be collected in the sterile container provided.

Latter part or the end of the urine should not be collected.

Cap the container. Keep it in the refrigerator or a cool place during the collection period.

OR

24-hour urine sample - Care must be taken to clean the genitals well before collection.

Follow these steps to get the sample

Day 1- The first morning urine sample on Day 1 must not be collected i.e. bladder must be emptied for the first time.

Note down the exact time of discarding the 1st urine sample.

All urine for the next 24 hours should be collected in the special container provided.

Day 2- collect the first morning urine of Day 2 into the same container, at the same time or within 10 minutes as that noted on the morning of Day 1.

Cap the container. Keep it in the refrigerator or a cool place during the collection period.

No special preparations required.

*Subjects suffering from any illness or on oral or injectable medications are advised to consult their physician prior to requesting any tests or procedures.

How do I interpret my Microalbumin - Urine test results?

Reference Range*

Interpretation

Below 30.0 mg/24hrs

Normal

Above 300 mg/24hrs

Clinical albuminuria

30 – 299 mg/24hrs

Microalbuminuria

Inference: An above-normal level of albumin in the urine means your kidneys have been damaged. Detecting kidney damage early can be important because treatment may help keep your kidneys working well and prevent more damage.
‘*A Reference range is a set of values which helps the healthcare professional to interpret a medical test. It may vary with age, gender, and other factors. Reference ranges may also vary between labs, in value & units depending on instruments used and method of establishment of reference ranges’

Diseases/conditions related to the Microalbumin - Urine test

  • Nephrotic syndrome 
  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • Subclinical cardiovascular disease
  • Vascular endothelial dysfunction
  • Important prognostic marker for kidney disease
  • In diabetes mellitus
  • In hypertension
  • Venous thromboembolism
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart failure
  • Cirrhosis
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • Chronic kidney disease

Other tests related to the Microalbumin - Urine test

  • Albumin
  • Creatinine
  • Blood Sugar (Glucose)
  • HbA1C

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Microalbumin (Urine)

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