Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

Introduction to Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
Cardiovascular diseases are caused when the blood vessels providing blood to the heart, brain or other vital parts of the body may be narrowed, blocked or stiffened. This causes a lack of oxygen to the tissue or the organ causing it to die slowly.
Risk for cardiovascular diseases is more often seen in individuals leading an unhealthy lifestyle such as being overweight, smokers, heavy drinkers or in persons having a family history of a heart disease, hypertension or diabetes.

Types of Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular diseases include the following:-

  • Aneurysm- A sac-like widening of an artery resulting from the weakening of the artery wall
  • Angina pectoris- A heart condition marked by an uncontrolled attack of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
  • Atherosclerosis-Fatty deposits inside the arterial walls, thus narrowing the arteries
  • Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke/ Apoplexy)- Sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain
  • Cerebrovascular disease-Disease of the brain and its blood vessels
  • Congestive Heart Failure- The inability to pump enough blood to the heart tissues
  • Congenital heart disease- Genetic heart disease inherited from birth
  • Coronary Artery Disease- The disease of the artery that supplies blood to the heart
  • Myocardial infarction (Heart Attack)-Destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle
  • Peripheral vascular disease- Hardening of the arteries that supply blood to the arms and legs.

Signs / Symptoms of Cardiovascular Disease

  • Pain or discomfort in the centre of the chest
  • Pain or discomfort in the arms, the left shoulder, elbows, jaw, or back
  • Shortness of breath
  • Severe headache with no known cause
  • Jaw pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Sweating
  • Heartburn and/or indigestion
  • General malaise (vague feeling of illness)
  • Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
  • Difficulty seeing with one or both eyes
  • Difficulty walking
  • Dizziness
  • Loss of balance
  • Coordination
  • Fainting or unconsciousness
  • High LDL-(bad cholesterol)
  • Hypertension

Related Tests to Cardiovascular Disease

  • Apolipoprotein - A1 (APO-A1)
  • Apolipoprotein b (APO-B)
  • Chol-cholesterol total
  • High sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP)
  • C-reactive protein (CRP)
  • Cholesterol HDL – direct
  • Ldl-cholesterol LDL – direct
  • Lp(a)-lipoprotein (a)
  • Triglycerides
  • Vitamin B12
  • Homocysteine 
  • Lipid profile
  • CPK-Creatinine phospho kinase
  • LDH-Lactate dehydrogenase

Synonyms : Coronary Heart disease (CHD), Angina pectoris, Atherosclerosis, Stroke
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