Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Introduction to COPD
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a long-lasting, progressive obstruction of the airways of the lungs. COPD slowly damages the airways, i.e. the breathing tubes that carry air in and out of the lungs. COPD makes the airways swollen and blocked partly by mucus. It also damages the tiny air sacs at the tips of the airways. This would make it hard to move the air in and out of the lungs. Cigarette smoking is the most common cause of COPD. Breathing in other kinds of irritants, like pollution, dust or chemicals; or old age, may also cause or contribute to COPD.

Types of COPD
Chronic bronchitis
A form of lung disease characterized by excess production of sputum leading to a chronic cough and obstruction of air flow.
Chronic asthma
Respiratory disorder characterized by wheezing; usually of allergic origin
Pulmonary Emphysema
An abnormal condition of the lungs marked by decreased respiratory function; associated with smoking or chronic bronchitis or old age

Signs & Symptoms of COPD

  • Chronic, persistent cough
  • Increased sputum or mucus production
  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheezing
  • Chest tightness
  • Tiredness
  • Headaches
  • Drowsiness
  • Twitching
  • Rapid breathing rate
  • Anorexia 
  • Excessive weight loss

Related Tests to COPD

  • Spirometry
  • Chest x-ray
  • Pulmonary function tests

Book Related Tests
  • Progesterone