Blood Group & Rh Typing

Clinical definition of the Blood Group test
There are 4 main blood groups A, B, AB and O. The blood group system also involves the Rhesus factor (factor D), which could be present or absent. So people can be classified according to both systems, for example AB positive or O negative, where the first group describes the blood type & the positive or negative indicates the presence or absence of the Rh factor.
The Rhesus factor is important during pregnancy since the baby's life can be endangered if it gets the Rhesus positive blood type from the father while the mother is Rhesus negative. This is because the mother can form antibodies against the baby's blood. In such cases the Rh Antibody Titre test may be used.

Why is the Blood Group test done?
Blood type tests are done before a person gets a blood transfusion and to check a pregnant woman's blood type. Blood type may also be done to see if two people are likely to be blood relatives. The test detects the common blood grouping system A, B, O, AB and Rhesus (D). Unusual blood groups or rare sub-types will not be detected by this method. Further investigation by a blood transfusion laboratory will be necessary to identify such groups.
The table below indicates the typical pattern which is followed while receiving or donating blood.

  Receive 


Donate 

O

A

B

AB (Universal recipient)

O (Universal Donor)

yes

yes

yes

yes

A

X

yes

X

yes

B

X

X

yes

yes

AB

X

X

X

yes

People with blood group 0 Rh - are called "universal donors" and people with blood group AB Rh+ are called "universal receivers."

Who should do the Blood Group test (Target population)?

Persons having a blood transfusion or as a screening to check the blood type of a pregnant woman.

What should I do before the Blood Group test?

Specimen type

Specimen collection procedure

Preparatory instructions before the test *

Serum

(Blood Sample)

Venipuncture

(Collection of blood from a vein, usually from the arm)

No Fasting Required.

No other special preparations required.

*Subjects suffering from any illness or on oral or injectable medications are advised to consult their physician prior to requesting any tests or procedures.

How do I interpret my Blood Group test results?Persons having a blood transfusion or as a screening to check the blood type of a pregnant woman.

Reference Range*

Interpretation

A

A +

A-

B

B+

B-

O

O+

O-

AB

AB +

AB-

‘*A Reference range is a set of values which helps the healthcare professional to interpret a medical test. It may vary with age, gender, and other factors. Reference ranges may also vary between labs, in value & units depending on instruments used and method of establishment of reference ranges’

Diseases/conditions related to the Blood Group test

  • Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)
  • Erythroblastosis fetalis

Other tests related to the Blood Group test

  • Rh Antibody titer test
  • Coombs Test
  • Direct antiglobulin test
  • Indirect antiglobulin test
  • Compatibility testing
  • Crossmatch
  • Antibody identification
  • HLA testing

Synonyms : Cross matching, ABO blood typing
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Blood Group and Rh Typing

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