Urine Routine

Clinical definition of the Urine Routine test
The urine routine test is an array of tests performed on urine and is one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis. It involves the physical, chemical and microscopic examination of urine.

Why is the Urine Routine test done?
The tests help to screen for kidney disease and infections of the urinary tract. It also helps to diagnose diseases that produce abnormal breakdown products that may be passed from the body in the urine. The Urine Routine test reports the following:-

  • Physical color and appearance
  • Specific gravity
  • pH, or relative acidity or alkalinity:
  • Presence of sugars, ketones, and proteins
  • Presence of blood and its components such as RBC, hemoglobin & WBC
  • Presence of bilirubin

What are the common signs/symptoms when the Urine Routine test is done?

  • Edema or swelling

Symptoms of a urinary tract infection or bladder infection

  • Burning on urination
  • Frequency to urinate
  • Bloody or cloudy urine

Symptoms of kidney failure

  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • Sleepiness
  • Itching
  • Twitching
  • Metallic taste in the mouth
  • Back pain
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • High blood pressure

Who should do the Urine Routine test (Target population)?

A urine routine test may be done in the following cases:

  • As part of a routine medical exam to screen for early signs of a disease
  • To check for the presence of blood in the urine
  • For persons showing signs of diabetes or kidney disease
  • To diagnose a urinary tract infection
  • To monitor the condition of the persons being treated for the above conditions

What should I do before the Urine Routine test?

Specimen type

Specimen collection procedure

Preparatory instructions before the test *


Mid-Stream Urine (not at the beginning and not at the end) should be collected. Care must be taken to clean the genitals well before collection.

Follow these steps to get the sample

Initial or the first few drops of the urine should be discarded in the toilet.

Mid-stream urine sample should be collected in the sterile container provided.

Latter part or the end of the urine should not be collected.

Cap the container. Keep it in the refrigerator or a cool place during the collection period.

No special preparations required.

Subjects suffering from any illness or on oral or injectable medications are advised to consult their physician prior to requesting any tests or procedures.

How do I interpret my Urine Routine test results?


Normal values


colorless ,dark yellow, Pale yellow  or amber (May be stained by certain foods)


Clear to slightly hazy

Specific Gravity



4.5-8.0 (The average is 6.0, which is slightly acidic)













Nitrate for Bacteria


Leukocyte Esterase



Occasional hyaline casts

Red Blood Cells

Negative or rare


Acid Urine


Amorphous urates


Uric acid


Calcium oxalate


Sodium acid Urates


Alkaline Urine


Amorphous phosphates


Calcium phosphate


Ammonium blurate


Triple phosphates


Calcium carbonate

Epithelial Cells



2 to 3 pus cells under High Power Field of microscope

‘*A Reference range is a set of values which helps the healthcare professional to interpret a medical test. It may vary with age, gender, and other factors. Reference ranges may also vary between labs, in value & units depending on instruments used and method of establishment of reference ranges’

Diseases/conditions related to the Urine Routine test

  • Kidney Infection
  • UTI (Urinary Tract Infection)

Other tests related to the Urine Routine test

  • Urine culture & sensitivity
  • 24 Urinary protein
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen
  • Creatinine
  • Creatinine clearance
  • Microalbumin
  • eGFR

Book This Test
Urine Routine And Microscopy

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