Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori) IgG antibodies

Clinical definition of the Helicobacter Pylori test
Helicobacter pylori are bacteria that may inhabit the digestive system especially the lining of the stomach, upper part of the small intestine (duodenum) and the antrum. Infection by the bacteria causes the inflammation of the stomach lining and the development of chronic duodenal, peptic and gastric ulcers, active gastritis, stomach cancer and other inflammatory gastroduodenal lesions.
Four tests may be most commonly used to detect H. pylori:

  • Antibody test - To check for IgG & IgA antibodies against the bacteria.
  • Urea breath test - To detect and identify the presence of the bacteria in the stomach by checking for the urease produced by it.
  • Stomach biopsy - Tissue examination of stomach lining and small intestine
  • Stool Antigen test

Why is the Helicobacter Pylori test done?
The Helicobacter pylori tests are used to detect and diagnose infection by the bacteria. It may be done to check the cause of gastritis or peptic ulcers and to monitor the treatment of the infection.

What are the common signs/symptoms when the Helicobacter Pylori test is done?
A carrier of H. pylori may not show any symptoms. A person suffering from the infection may show following symptoms:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Bloating and fullness
  • Indigestion
  • vomiting
  • Hungry feeling 1 to 3 after eating
  • Mild nausea
  • Anemia
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Unexplained weight loss

Who should do the Helicobacter Pylori test (Target population)?
Persons suffering from the above signs & symptoms.

What should I do before the Helicobacter Pylori test?

Specimen type

Specimen collection procedure

Preparatory instructions before the test *

Serum (Blood Sample)

 

Venipuncture - Collection of blood from a vein, usually from the arm.

No Fasting Required.

No other special preparations required.

Breath Test

Urea labeled with uncommon isotope will be given to swallow. 10-20 minutes later, isotope labeled carbon dioxide will be detected from the exhaled breath.

For the  breath test consult the doctor and avoid  certain medications

*Subjects suffering from any illness or on oral or injectable medications are advised to consult their physician prior to requesting any tests or procedures.

How do I interpret my Helicobacter Pylori test results?

IgG

IgA

Reference Range*

Interpretation

Reference Range*

Interpretation

1.1 U/mL & Above

Positive

Below  8 U/mL **

Negative

Below 0.9  U/mL

Negative

8 to 12 U/mL

Borderline

0.9 to 1.09 U/mL

Indeterminate

Above 12 U/mL

Positive

Inference:
The presence of isotope labeled carbon dioxide indicates the presence of urease in the stomach. H . pylori produces urease which breaks down the labelled urea to produce labeled carbon-dioxide & ammonia.
‘*A Reference range is a set of values which helps the healthcare professional to interpret a medical test. It may vary with age, gender, and other factors. Reference ranges may also vary between labs, in value & units depending on instruments used and method of establishment of reference ranges’

Diseases/conditions related to the Helicobacter Pylori test

  • Duodenal ulcers
  • Peptic ulcers
  • Gastric ulcers
  • Gastritis
  • Stomach cancer
  • Inflammatory gastro duodenal lesions

Other tests related to the Helicobacter Pylori test

  • Helicobacter Pylori Antibody test
  • Helicobacter Pylori Urea breath test

Synonyms : Rapid urease test (RUT), Breath test, CLO test
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