Ultrasound Sonography Test (USG) - (Abdominal / Pelvic)

Clinical definition of the Sonography test
Sonography is used to examine many internal organs of the body, such as the abdomen, breasts, the male and female reproductive system, the fetus of a pregnant woman, heart and blood vessels etc. They can show the structure and movement of the body's internal organs, including the abdomen, the fetus of pregnant women as well as blood flowing through blood vessels.

Why is the Sonography test done?
The ultrasound images help to diagnose and treat medical conditions. It may also be used to:

  • Find the cause of abdominal pain
  • Check the size, shape, and position of an organ
  • Find problems and look for damage, disease or tumor in an organ

Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound. The 3-D ultra sound formats the sound wave data into 3-D images. The Four-dimensional (4-D) ultrasound is a 3-D ultrasound in motion. Hence it is also called as Real time live 3D.
The two most common types of ultrasounds performed are:

  • Abdominal ultrasound: It produces a picture of the organs and other structures in the upper abdomen. It may be performed to evaluate the
    • Kidneys
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
    • Pancreas
    • Spleen
    • Abdominal aorta and other blood vessels of the abdomen
  • Pelvic Ultrasound: A pelvic ultrasound may be done to evaluate the following:
    • In men and women
      • Kidney stones
      • Urinary bladder
    • In women
      • Bladder
      • Ovaries
      • Uterus
      • Cervix
      • Fallopian tubes
      • To monitor the health and development of the fetus during pregnancy
    • In men
      • Prostate gland

What are the common signs/symptoms when the Sonography test is done?
Ultrasound may help to evaluate symptoms such as:

  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Infection
  • Pelvic pain
  • Abnormal bleeding
  • Other menstrual problems

Who should do the Sonography test (Target population)?
Persons showing the above signs & symptoms and pregnant women.

What should I do before the Sonography test?

Diagnostic procedure

Preparatory instructions before the test *

An odorless, colorless gel is applied to the skin above the body structure(s) to be studied

A small device called a transducer/probe is placed against the patients skin near the body area to be imaged

The transducer is moved around to image the various organs under study which appear on a monitor and the most diagnostically useful images are saved and interpreted

Wear loose-fitting clothing

Ensure that the bladder is full

It is important to drink lot of water at least one hour before the exam and finishing at least 45 minutes before the test, since the water must be absorbed by the body

Diseases/conditions related to the Sonography test

  • Ovarian cysts 
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Ovarian or uterine cancers
  • Abdominal cysts
  • Cirrhosis of liver
  • Kidney stones
  • Splenomegaly

Other tests related to the Sonography test

  • X-ray