White blood cell (Leukocyte) Differential count & morphology

Clinical definition of the Differential count test
The blood differential test measures the percentage of each type of white blood cell (WBC). There a five type of white blood cells, each with different functions. These include neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and basophils, eosinophils.The test detects whether these cells are present in normal proportion to one another, whether cell type is increased or decreased or if immature cells are present. This helps in diagnosing specific type of illness that affects the immune system. Abnormally high or low counts indicate the presence of many forms of disease.

Why is the Differential count test done?
Differential count test is carried out to diagnose an illness affecting the immune system such as infection or viral condition, or other diseases that affect the white blood cells such as leukemia.

What are the common signs/symptoms when the Differential count test is done?

  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Decreased appetite
  • Dizziness
  • Depression
  • Weakness
  • Shortness of Breath
  • General malaise
  • Chest pain
  • Brittle nails
  • Nails, pale skin and gums
  • Cold feet and hands

What should I do before the Differential count test?

Specimen type

Specimen collection procedure

Preparatory instructions before the test *

EDTA (Blood Sample)

Venipuncture

Collection of blood from a vein, usually from the arm

No Fasting required

No other special preparations required.

*Subjects suffering from any illness or on oral or injectable medications are advised to consult their physician prior to requesting any tests or procedures.

How do I interpret my Differential count test results?

Reference Range*

Interpretation

NEUTROPHILS

Male

40 to 80%

Female

40 to 80%

Children

 

0.1 – 1 year

16 – 52%

2 years

21- 67%

2.1 – 9 years

30- 74  %

9.1- 17 years

44 – 76%

LYMPHOCYTES

Male

20 to 40%

Female

20 to 40%

Children

 

0.1 - 1 year

32 - 69%

1-2 years

20-64%

2.1-9 years

14-48%

9.1-17 years

15-43%

MONOCYTES

Male

2 – 10%

Female

2- 10%

Children

 

0.1 – 1 year

2.8- 8.3

1 - 2 years

1.9 - 6.8%

2.1 – 9 years

1.9 – 6.8%

9.1 – 17 years

4- 8.9%

BASOPHILS

Male

0 to 2

Female

0 to 2%

Children

0.1 to 1 year

0 to 2 %

1 to 2 years

0 to 2 %

2.1 to 9 years

0 to 2%

9.1 to 17 years

0 to 2%

EOSINOPHILS

Male

1 to 6%

Female

1 to 6 %

Children

 

0.1 to 1 year

0 – 5 %

1 to 2 years

0 - 3%

2.1 to 9 years

0 – 6 %

9.1 to 17 years

0 – 6 %

*A reference range is a set of values which helps he healthcare professional to interpret a medical test. It may vary with age, gender, and other factors. Reference ranfes may also vary between labs, in value and units depending on instruments used and method of establishement of reference ranges’’

Diseases/conditions related to the Differential count test

  • Parasitic infections  
  • Chronic inflammation
  •  Lupus
  • Bone marrow injury or failure 

Other tests related to the Differential count test

  • Complete blood count
  • Blood smear

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CBC (Complete Blood Count)

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